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Resin Bound Drives



 

 

 



Resin Bound

This is a system of laying a hard wearing course of mixed resin and dried aggregates onto either a new or existing tarmac or concrete base. No other surfacing system can deliver ALL of the benefits of Resin Bound.

Water Permeable


Resin bound permeable paving solution is hard-wearing, attractive and environmentally friendly. Suitable for a wide range of circumstances, resin bound permeable surfacing is proving a very popular choice for driveways and other outdoor areas. Our unique 5 year guarantee on workmanship & materials gives you ultimate peace of mind that the work we do will be carried out professionally and to the highest standards.

  • Attractive and hardwearing surfacing solution
  • Environmentally Friendly, SuDS compliant solution
  • Anti slip functionality

Permeable paving solutions are environmentally friendly as they allow rain to permeate the surface rather than, as with more traditional paving solutions such as block paving, concrete, cobbles or tarmac, run off and collect in puddles and streams adding to the flood risk. Our resin bound surfacing is SuDS (Sustainable Drainage Systems) compliant and does not require planning permission.

We offer a full service, from surveying the area to be surfaced, offering advice to help you choose the right material and colour to best enhance your property, carrying out any groundwork required and installing your new driveway, patio and paths, so you can relax in the knowledge that the project will be carried professionally and to the highest standards.
 

Quick Quote

Please provide your area to be resin bound and some pictures and we can get a rough quote to you subject to a site visit.  email [email protected]
 

Resin Bound Aggrogates MonsterMulch
 
 
 

 






Initial site survey – things to consider.
• The surface of the site – does it need a new base?
• Is the base stable? The resin bound system will only be as stable as the base it is laid on. If in doubt suggest a
new base.
• Any cracking? Structural or movement – this will either need to be reinstated i.e. cutting out and refilling. Or
can control with geotextile cracking mesh.
Joints - any existing joints in the base will need replicating in the resin bound surface.
• Damage – holes, degradation – does it need reinstating or can it be covered with the resin bound surface at
an increased depth.
• Tree roots – are they to be covered with the resin bound or left proud of the surface - advice customer on
the tree roots - i.e. they will always win.
• Edging – what is the resin bound surface going to be edged with? Setts, beading?
• Will the existing edging be suitable? - will it need replacing or protecting from the resin, need taping or
sheeting?
• Use a new edge against existing fences or gravel boards as it will disrupt the surface if it needs replacing.
• Check for slopes - is this going to cause an issue? Anti slip requirement?
• Steps - are the surface of the steps to be resin bound? Edging will probably be required to delignate from a
health and safety perspective.
• Manholes - screed trays or recessed manholes required.
• Threshold edging – how is this going to be resolved.
• Area to set up and work. – make sure there is a suitably sized area to mix and have the aggregates delivered
to. This will more than likely be on the pavement outside the property so you will have to ensure that the
area is secure and safe from passers-by.
Remember if you are having a direct delivery of the aggregates - it will likely be on a tail lift lorry with manual pump
truck - so the area will need to be flat and hard standing. It cannot be delivered onto grass gravel or slopes. It is
preferable that someone is there for the delivery to ensure that it is put in the right place to avoid having to move
pallets of aggregates on the day. It is always better to have the delivery the day before!!
• Cleaning – how much does the drive need cleaning?
• Priming – does the drive need priming?
• Check meterage – allow for natural undulations, over order by 20% to allow for any variances.
• Type of stone required.
All of the above need taking into consideration when quoting for the installation. To ensure you are taking into
account the necessary materials and time required to prepare the surface and to ensure you have the correct
materials to commence the job.
Prior to installation (as required)
Edging detail:
Block or Concrete kerbs set to protrude 16 to 18mm above existing base edge. It is always advisable to edge up
against an existing fence or gravel board – as the resin will stick to it and could cause disruption of the surface it
the fence moves or has to be replaced in the future.
Repairs:
Badly damaged areas to be removed to 200mm depth and reinstated with 100mm type 1 MOT hardcore
(mechanically compacted) and 100mm of concrete.Crack repair - this can be repaired using a geotextile mat,
Bitumen strips, or elastic crack repair.
Cleaning:
Power wash to remove all detritus and organic material. The driveway needs to be completely clean prior to
laying the resin bound surface as any dust, dirt, or moss will contaminate the resin. This ideally should be done
the day before so the driveway has chance to dry completely. If the drying needs to be accelerated - heat guns
can be used. (Careful on Tarmac).
Levelling:
Can be achieved 2 ways –
1: Small undulations can be addressed with surface installation (be cautious of impact on usage)
2: Leveling compounds. I.e. Exterior floor leveling (Cempolay ultra, Flow top etc.) or site mix Granolithic
concrete)
Manhole covers:
Replace with recessed alternatives (known as screed trays or block paving drains)
Drainage:
Install Aco drainage channels or soakaways as required (See S.U.D.S summary in manual)
Priming:
Prime/Seal all bases (new or existing) prior to installation of finished surface. Make sure the correct primer is
used for the correct surface.
Bitmac base
Use a waterproof based primer – always check manufacturer’s guidelines. With a new bitmac base, leave to cure
for at least 14 days, allow longer in the summer. The oils in the bitmac do not mix well together and the resin bound
surface will not adhere to the tarmac, and the oils will cause the resin to go milky and spongy.
Concrete base
A solvent based primer can be used - check manufacturers guidelines. With new concrete bases, ensure that the
concrete has fully cured - ideally 28 days. As a minimum 14 days. An alternative is to use a breathable concrete
sealer - this will allow the concrete to continue curing, as the resin bound surface is permeable it will allow the
concrete to breathe.
If in doubt about the moisture on the surface - use a Hydrometer.
Marking out the site.
Some contractors mark the area out in square metres (mixes) this can then serve as a guide and an early indicator of
using too much aggregate – laying too deep,) or too little - not deep enough. The surface needs to be completely
dry prior to laying the surface. Water and resin do not mix!!
Preparation of existing surfaces
1. Think about adding a step detail.
2. Cracks - Use cross layer membrane to cover cracks or if expansion joints replicate
in resin bound surface with beading.
3. Repairs - Badly damaged areas to be removed to 200mm depth and reinstated
with 100mm type 1 MOT hardcore (mechanically compacted) and 100mm of
concrete.
4. Boundary - Always install an edge on a boundary as if that boundary is removed it
can damage the resin bound surface, especially if up to a fence, which could move or
be removed.
5. Edging detail: Block or Concrete kerbing set to protrude 18mm above existing base
edge.
6. Cleaning: Power wash to remove all debris and organic material
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Resin Bound – Base requirements – ASPHALT BASE COURSE
TYPICAL BASE BUILD UP – PRIVATE DRIVEWAYS /PATHS/PATIOS
Permeable and S.U.D.S. compliant
PURPOSE: To provide an attractive, durable and seamless natural stone or gravel finish
ADVANTAGES: An attractive and durable surface that allows water to pass though the surface and is easy to clean.
NOTES: Resin bound can be overlaid onto existing concrete or asphalt surfaces of suitable construction for the
traffic expected.
Joints of cracks should be broken out to a minimum of 200mm width and in filled with well compacted macadam or
concrete base layers as above
The specification is based on normal good practice for flexible surfacing and does not absolve the specifier from
designing a construction suitable for the expected traffic and ground conditions pertaining on a given site. Areas that
may be heavily trafficked by heavy vehicles should have structure layers designed according to DoT requirements
The thickness of the sub base layer required is dependent on sub grade soil condition.
SURFACE COURSE 7.5Kg resin kit
75kg 2-5mm, 25kg 1-3mm aggregate, 6.25kg sand @ typical 18mm Depth
BINDER COURSE
A 50mm depth of 14mm porous close graded surface coarse asphalt, max 190 pen to
BS4987 a suitable primer may be required.
A suitable primer is sometimes require
SUB BASE
A 100-200mm depth of well compacted non frost susceptible damp type 3 sub base to
DoT clause 803
SUB GRADE
Permeable resin bound
Surfacing, hand applied &
trowelled to a smooth finish
Laid in well compacted layers
to a minimum fall of 1%
0.5mm grit (i.e. crushed glass)
broadcasted onto uncured
resin surface
Resin Bound – Base requirements – CONCRETE BASE
TYPICAL BASE BUILD UP – PRIVATE DRIVEWAYS /PATHS/PATIOS
(Non-permeable – Additional drainage required to comply with S.U.D.S)
PURPOSE: To provide an attractive, durable and seamless natural stone or gravel finish
ADVANTAGES: An attractive and durable surface that absorbs water and remains easy to clean.
NOTES: Resin bound can be overlaid onto existing concrete or asphalt surfaces of suitable construction for the
traffic expected.
Joints of cracks should be broken out to a minimum of 200mm width and in filled with well compacted macadam or
concrete base layers as above
The specification is based on normal good practice for flexible surfacing and does not absolve the specifier from
designing a construction suitable for the expected traffic and ground conditions pertaining on a given site. Areas that
may be heavily trafficked by heavy vehicles should have structure layers designed according to DoT requirements
The thickness of the sub base layer required is dependent on sub grade soil condition.


Resin Bound – Base requirements – RUBBER BASE COURSE
TYPICAL BASE BUILD UP – PRIVATE DRIVEWAYS /PATHS/PATIOS
Permeable / S.U.D.S compliant)
PURPOSE: To provide an attractive, durable and seamless natural stone or gravel finish
ADVANTAGES: An attractive and durable surface that allows water to pass though the surface and is easy to clean.
NOTES: Resin bound can be overlaid onto existing concrete or asphalt surfaces of suitable construction for the
traffic expected.
Joints of cracks should be broken out to a minimum of 200mm width and in filled with well compacted macadam or
concrete base layers as above
The specification is based on normal good practice for flexible surfacing and does not absolve the specifier from
designing a construction suitable for the expected traffic and ground conditions pertaining on a given site. Areas that
may be heavily trafficked by heavy vehicles should have structure layers designed according to DoT requirements
The thickness of the sub base layer required is dependent on sub grade soil condition.
SURFACE COURSE 7.5kg resin kit
75kg 2-5mm, 25kg 1-3mm aggregate, 6.25kg sand @ typical 18mm Depth
BINDER COURSE
A 40mm depth rubber base consisting of 50% SBR 4-7mm granulate, 25% 1-3mm SBR
granulate and 25% W&D granite 2-5mm bound with 20% (by weight) rubber binder
Part 1:2001 or a 40mm depth of smooth brushed concrete finish with a PVA seal
SUB BASE
A 140-200mm depth of well compacted non frost susceptible damp type 1 sub base to
DoT clause 803
SUB GRADE
Permeable resin bound
Surfacing, hand applied &
trowelled to a smooth finish
Laid in well compacted layers
0.5mm grit (i.e. crushed glass)
broadcasted onto uncured
surface
Resin Bound – Base requirements
TYPICAL BASE BUILD UP – CAR PARKS AND ROADWAYS
PURPOSE: To provide an attractive, durable and seamless natural stone or gravel finish
ADVANTAGES: An attractive and durable surface that allows water to pass though the surface and is easy to clean.
NOTES: Resin bound can be overlaid onto existing concrete or asphalt surfaces of suitable construction for the
traffic expected.
Joints of cracks should be broken out to a minimum of 200mm width and in filled with well compacted macadam or
concrete base layers as above – or a geotextile membrane.
The specification is based on normal good practice for flexible surfacing and does not absolve the specifier from
designing a construction suitable for the expected traffic and ground conditions pertaining on a given site. Areas that
may be trafficked by heavy vehicles should have structure layers designed according to DoT requirements
The thickness of the sub base layer required is dependent on sub grade soil condition.
The details given in this specification are intended only as a guide. Actual details should be developed by the
project designers taking into account the specific circumstances of the intended application. Derbyshire
Aggregates assumes no responsibility for improper reliance upon or misuse of the data herein. Product design
and specification are subject to change with further notice.
SURFACE COURSE 7.5kg resin kit
75kg 2-5mm, 25kg1-3mm aggregate, 6.25kg sand @ typical 18mm Depth
BINDER COURSE
A 35mm depth of 14mm porous close graded surface course asphalt, max 190 pen to
BS4987. Ensure primer is a suitable water based material.
Part 1:2001 or a 40mm depth of smooth brushed concrete finish with a PVA seal
SUB BASE
A 200-300mm depth of well compacted non frost susceptible damp type 3 sub base to
DoT clause 803
SUB GRADE
Permeable resin bound
Surfacing, hand applied &
trowelled to a smooth finish
Laid in well compacted layers
to a minimum fall of 1%
0.5mm grit (i.e. crushed glass)
broadcasted onto uncured
resin surface
ROAD BASE
A 65mm depth of 28mm dense asphalt base course, max 190 pen to BS4987: Part 1
2001
Part 1:2001 or a 40mm depth of smooth brushed concrete finish with a PVA seal
Resin Bound – Material & Equipment required
Materials:
• 2 part resin kits – Always err on the side of caution so you don’t run short leaving unnecessary cold joints.
It is advisable to over order by 20%
• Aggregates – Make sure you have plenty, you should have 100kg for every resin kit (see Derbyshire
Aggregates Mix Design).
• Fine Kiln dried sand – 6.25kg per mix
• Crushed glass to provide slip resistance.
• 25L drum of thinners.
Equipment;
• Forced action pan mixer
• Generator or power supply
• 110v transformer and lead
• Drill with slow start facility
• Whisk paddle
• Gaffer tape
• Resin trowel
• 5L /10L buckets, scrapers and small paint brush for keeping mixer clean
• Plenty of cleaning rags
• Wooden lute
• Knit wrist and latex gloves
• Clean wheelbarrow – polythene liners recommended
• Clean shovel
• Stanley knife
• Tarpaulins
• WD 40
• Gas burner and bottle
• Stiff brush
• Knee pads
• Disposable trousers
• Camera!
• Stopwatch
• Gazebo
• Cones and Warning tape
• Beading if required
• Reflective Blankets (to cover stone and resin in hot weather)
Derbyshire Aggregates Recommended Mix Design
Derbyshire aggregates provide two size kits of the UVR Resin to be used with the following amounts of aggregates.
Through research and experience we are convinced that having the correct ratio of resin to aggregates is critical to
achieving a lasting, durable surface.
Daltex Bound UVR 6.5kgs
75kgs 2-5mm, 12.5kgs 1-3mm and 6.25kgs sand – Total 93.75kgs - % resin 6.9% - Coverage approximately 3.13m2 at
18mm.
Daltex Bound plus UVR 7.5kgs
75kgs 2-5mm, 25kgs 1-3mm and 6.25kgs of sand – Total 106.25kgs - % resin 7.05% - Coverage approximately
3.55m2 at 18mm.
We recommend that the minimum depth for Driveways is a depth of 18mm. For pathways with foot traffic only, a
recommend depth of 15mm. This is so the surface achieves the required tensile strength for the application.
Historically the normal mix is 6.5kg kits with 100kg of stone. We believe this ratio does not contain enough
resin. This has resulted in poor performance on some aggregates.
• Premium kits have been developed : 7.5kg UV stable resin
• Premium Vs Budget kits
• Higher resin content gives greater surface area bond – particularly in low density aggregates (i.e.
Daltex Yellow, Daltex Silver etc.) = Stronger surface/greater tensile strength
• Less susceptible to moisture penetration.
• Reduced risk of ‘reflective cracking’
UV OR Not UV?
At Derbyshire Aggregates we only recommend the use of UV Stable resins for external applications, this is for the
following reasons.
There are two types of resin. UV stable and Non UV stable.
UV stable
Unaffected by natural light. The resin will not discolor or be broken down by the UV rays, see picture
over.
Natural stone finish maintained.
UV systems (Aliphatic hardener) have flexible characteristics. This means there is a degree of flexibility
so less liable to cracking.
Premium price – it usually does cost more than, however not as much as having to relay the surface, or
explain to your customer why he different coloured surfaces.
Non UV Stable
Darkens when exposed to sunlight sometimes as quickly as within 2 weeks. See picture over.
Shading is inconsistent.
Non UV systems (Aromatic hardener) is a very strong resin BUT can sometimes become brittle and
could in some circumstances crack.
Cheaper, this is usually a false economy as often the drive has to be re-laid or remedial work carried out
to correct it.
Futureproof your installation
Non UV will continue to darken so the initial colour of the installation will change in less than 3 weeks.
The surface beneath obstacles such as pots, bins etc. will remain unaffected by the UV, so will remain as
laid, so a different colored patch will be visible when the obstacle is moved. This will even apply to a car
that is left on the drive for any period of time, overhanging branches, anything that will protect the
drive from the UV rays will cause inconsistent shading.
Also as the resin surface layer wears, shaded wheel tracks will become visible.
The differences between UV and Non UV Resin
March 2017
Colour change in less than 3 weeks
The photo demonstrates how much the surface has faded.
Mixing the Resin
The formulation of resins, mixed with dry graded aggregate has been carefully designed to suit the requirements of
the site. It is essential that the specified blend is not varied by the contractor. The process of mixing and laying is
simple, but requires accuracy and care at EVERY stage.
Mixing of the resin is a very important part of the process. Shortcuts must NOT be taken.
Mix the resin kit together in their entirety in the pre-determined kit ratios. Part B should be added to the Part A.
Ensure all hardener Part B is scrapped out of the container. This is highly important as in order for the resin to cure
properly it needs ALL of the hardener in the mix. Failure to do this will result in some of the resin failing to cure.
Mix the resin thoroughly with a slow-speed high-torque drill and paddle for approximately 60 seconds.
The resin will marble when you start to mix – you are looking for it to become one consistent colour.
Mix the resin in the container on a plasterer’s board or some other protective surface in case of splashes.
Make sure the resin container is secure (between your feet) before you start mixing.
Working time for the resin is approximately 30 minutes (at 20 degrees C).
Curing time approximately 8 hours, (at 20 degrees C), however we do not recommend any foot traffic
until 24 hours after laying.
Important notes:
The resin is temperature sensitive and for every 10 degree rise in temperature - it halves the curing time.
Keep the resin as cool as possible - it is not recommended that on a hot day to keep the resin in your van or in
direct sunlight. A reflective cover would be beneficial to help keep the resin cool.
If the Part B looks milky or has crystals in it, it has been exposed to moisture and should not be used.
Mixing the Aggregates and the resin together
The aggregate meanwhile is sorted into batches and the bags opened. Mix bags of aggregates from each pallet to
guarantee a consistent mix.
• HALF of the aggregates (2 bags/50kg) are tipped into the mixer and then add the resin, mix for
approximately 30 seconds then add the remaining aggregates (2 bags/50kg) added.
NOTE: If using a blend of stone (25% 1-3mm and 75% 2-5mm) the smaller stone must be included in the first 50kg of
stone to be put in the mixer).
• After the resin is thoroughly mixed through, add the kiln dried sand.
• Mix for 5 minutes until the sand is dispersed through the mix.
IMPORTANT NOTE - Ensure each batch is mixed for exactly the same time, as the colour of the finished material can
alter with small changes in mixing time. It is advisable that a stopwatch is used to ensure that the correct mixing time
is adhered to consistently.
IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER:
1) Incorrect mixing of the resin will cause the material to fail. The operative must monitor the efficiency of resin
mixing by checking the empty tubs. After circa 30 minutes, by scraping out the skin of the congealed resin
from the first few tubs with a sharp tool – There should be no liquid residue between the skin of the resin
and the base or sides of the tub, repeat this check randomly at least once an hour.
2) DO NOT USE aggregates that appear damp in the bags.
3) Insufficient mixing time in the mixer may give rise to uncoated material.
4) For each batch, make sure that the correct blend of aggregates is used.
5) Take care to keep the aggregates in the shade - the aggregates will heat up and this will increase the curing
time of the resin
6) Laying a resin bound surface on to Tarmac on a hot day, will also increase the curing time of the resin.
7) Start the job early if it looks like it is going to be hot!
Please take care, it will be expensive for you to rectify mistakes afterwards, any suspect batches must be
discarded.
Mixing on site - Safety Information
The resins are safe; however they should be used carefully.
Whilst skin contact should be avoided by the use of PVC gloves or gauntlets, the catalyst can, upon skin
contact cause blisters to appear, so great care must be taken in its use.
Eyes should be protected from splashes and from stones flying out of the mixer, by use of goggles.
All operatives should wear overalls.
Any safety guards on the mixer should NOT be removed, avoiding the risk of injury from the paddles.
The aggregates have been dried and screened, so dust will be minimal. If any dust occurs an approved
nuisance grade dust mask must be used.
Approved ear defenders must be worn when in proximity to mixers, generators etc.
Safety boots and hard hats MUST be worn on all sites.
NEVER heat the resin to aid the mixing, this can liberate harmful vapour.
Xylene thinners or white spirit are advised for cleaning floats and other hand tools.
Safety data sheets are available on request.
Before you start
1) Is rain forecast? – Do not attempt to lay if rain is forecast during installation or within 4 hours of completion
2) Get a rain app for your phone.
3) Use an outdoor hydrometer to test for humidity.
4) Is the ground/surface wet? – Delay install or force dry with a gas lance.
5) Is the humidity below 80%? – Higher and there is a chance of rain and moisture in the air.
6) Is the surface temperature as least 3 degrees higher than the Dew point temperature? – Use a Hydrometer.
7) Has the surface been primed? Primer must be dry before install.
8) Have materials been checked (quantity, batch, colour etc.) and area re-measured?
9) Have trowels and equipment been cleaned and ready for use?
10) Use a light coat of WD 40 in the mixer to aid cleaning after each mix.
11) All cracks have been repaired.
12) All edging is protected with tape to avoid resin staining.
What the “Mixer “does
This is based on the Derbyshire Aggregates 7.5kg Mix Design
Be Clean - Be Consistent – Be Safe
Step 1 Place the first 25kg bag of 2-5mmstone and the bag of 1-3mm stone
Step 2 Add the premixed resin
Step 3 Add the two bags of 2-5mm stone
Step 4 Add the bag of sand
Stages 2-4 must be mixed for the same amount of time on every mix!
Failure to do this will cause a variation in the colour mix.
This should be no more than about 5 minutes once the resin has been added. Once the sand has been
added, make sure this has been distributed evenly through the mix and then you are ready to go.
Ideally use a stop watch to ensure consistency for every mix.
Switch the mixer off and empty the mix into your lined barrow.
Ensure all the mix is scraped out of the mixer – taking special care to remove it from the blades and from the door of
the mixer where it will tend to gather.
The “Luter” then takes the mix to the “troweller”
Important!!
The mixer then cleans the mixer down, and checks that it is still in good order.
It is important to clean the mixer down each time to avoid the build-up of resin and lengthy cleaning of cured resin
at the end of the day.
Avoids contamination and clumping – any residue from previous mixes could potentially end up in the new mix, this
will have started to cure and will form clumps in the new mix which will cause problems for the troweller when he is
laying the mix.
Wipe the mixer round with white spirit till all the residue of the previous mix has gone.
Things to check for whilst cleaning –
The blades are not to worn – excessive wear will mean the mix is not mixed evenly and will get stuck
underneath the blades. It will also take longer to mix and will not mix evenly
Top Tip - lightly spray the inside of the mixer with WD40 when clean - this will stop the resin sticking so much to the
mixer.
Once the mixer is thoroughly cleaned - the mixer is ready to start with the next mix!!! Only 47 more to go!
What does the “ luter “do?
Empties the mix into the barrow Tips manageable quantities
Evenly spreads the mix with the Lute
Tip managable quantities of the material between the batons, this will take some time to judge the right
amounts.
This is important because if you put too much material down, it will take more trowelling and working on
the mix.
The luter then spreads the mix as evenly as possible between the batons.
Most importantly, the luter needs to look at the surface that has been previously trowelled out and check
for trowel marks and inconsistancies in the surface, FROM EVERY POSSIBLE ANGLE. Any anomolies can be
easily rectified at this stage before the mix has cured.
To achieve an optimum strength surface, a resin bound installation should consist of:
UV stable resin/hardener @ 2.14 kg per Square meters (approx. 3.5 Square meter coverage)
A blend of 25% 1-3mm stone and 75% 2-5mm stone.
1.78 kg fine kiln dried sand per Square meters (C52 sand)
Fine crushed glass or C52 sand to broadcast to surface for slip resistance.
Temperature 15 degrees C and rising for duration of installation (catalyst required for temps
below 15 degrees).
No rain / Air temp above 5 degree humidity below 80% / surface temp 3 degrees higher
than Dew point temp – Use a Hydrometer.
All preparation work cured/complete
Three man installation team. – The Mixer, The Luter and The Troweller

The “Troweller”
The trowllers job is to plan the laying route and either grid the area out in squares with
chalk.
The troweller also lays the batons in place where he wants the luter to tip the mix.
Once the luter has levelled the mix, the troweller can begin laying the mix
The main objectives are to knit the mix together , smooth the surface and then leave a final
sheen ( polish the mix).
This must all be done in the least strokes possible.
The troweller must also be able to judge the levels and the depth of the mix, one way to do
this is to lay the large trowel on top of the mix ( like a spirit level to judge any uneven parts
of the surface).
Knitting the mix together – making sure the aggregates form a closely compacted surface.
By using the screed bar the mix can be leveled out prior to trowelling.
Trowel the mix until all the aggregates stop moving in a fluid movement and become solid.
One way to test this is to cut a section into the edge of the surface you are trowlling and
see if it slumps or stays intact.
Use the trowel, with the edge slightly raised away from the stroke , this will prevent the
trowl digging into the mix.
What can go wrong? And how to avoid it!!
Unexpected rain
Rain and resins do not mix well. It is highly likely that the surface can be damaged should it rain during or shortly
after installation (min 4 hours). There are however, steps you can take to reduce the risk of permanent damage.
1) Erect a good quality 3 metre gazebo
2) Ensure resins and hardener are mixed in the dry.
3) Ensure forced action mixer is underneath the gazebo.
4) Cover ALL stone with tarpaulins.
These steps can be taken if the installation is nearing completion. If the job isn’t near completion or the rain is heavy
and prolonged; it is advisable to terminate the edge of the last laid mix to a neat line, laid and finished at the correct
depth and return the following day to complete. A ‘day joint’ is likely to be visible.
Accept the fact that it is likely you will have to relay the surface.
Get a good weather app for your phone.
Mix curing too quickly – Higher than anticipated temperatures
In the height of summer, surfaces can be as much as twice the temperature of the ambient air temperature –
Especially black surfaces such as Asphalt, the resin can cure in as little as 10 minutes.
If laying to tarmac surfaces during a hot spell – Start early before the temperature reaches its height and keep resins
in the shade, but do not store in a van. Leaving resins tubs in direct sunlight can significantly reduce cure times. Also
it is advisable to keep the aggregates out of the sun as the stone will also heat up and increase the temperature of
the mix.
Running out of stock
Coverage rates can vary according to stone type and accuracy in the depth of laying. Installers should always carry at
least 20% more stock than the coverage rates stated. It is a good idea to mark out the surface (with line marker
paint) every 10 square metres or so. Regularly checking the usage versus the marked lines will give you an
opportunity early on in the installation to anticipate product shortage which could possibly give you the opportunity
to source more product before it is needed or to correct the over usage.
Surface shading
This cannot be rectified after the resin has cured so it is critical that each stone type (if using multiple stone colours)
are from the same batch.
Shading can also occur if mixes are prepared inconsistently. I.e. left in the machine (or the wheelbarrow) for
different amounts of time. So it is important to mix each mix for exactly the same time, every time.
This can also be caused by an inconsistent trowelling action and pressure, especially towards the end of the day
when tiredness sets in. It is important that everyone looks at the surface from different angles to unsure there are
no inconsistencies.
What else can go wrong and how to avoid it.. Continued.
Someone walks on the surface after it has been laid
If this happens shortly after the surface has been laid (within 2 hours) and the damaged area is accessible without
causing more damage; it should be possible to re-trowel the affected area flat.
If this happens AFTER the surface is fully cured, carefully chisel out the affected area (do not mechanically cut). Mix
up a small amount of stone and resin/hardener (use syringes to measure out correct quantity of resin/hardener and
postal scales to weigh out the correct amount of stone. Carefully compact the new mix into the exposed area.
Clearly marking the area with cones and warning tape will help prevent people inadvertently walking on the surface.
It is a good idea to take some photos of the area with the cones and tape in place.
Beware of cats - these are the worst culprits!!
Reflective Cracking
This is when the surface develops cracks over time due the base moving. If the base has moved and you have
installed he base, they you will have to repair. However you make it clear to the customer that if you have not put
the base down then you aren’t responsible for any subsequent cracking.
Tree Roots
This potential problem needs addressing prior to the installation and the best way of dealing with them discussed
with the customer.
Tree roots will always win in the end, so if it is decided that they are to be resined over, the customer needs to be
aware that they will eventually cause disruption in the surface.
Iron Spotting
Some of the aggregates contain a natural occurring element of iron. If this is released from the mix this can cause a
dark stain. There are however two different types of stains that can occur and require different methods to resolve.
Seek advice from the aggregate manufacture in the first instance. They will help identify the cause and remedial
action needed.
One of the ways to avoid this is either not to use the aggregate concerned or to ensure that a higher than normal
resin content is used, as it has been found that in surfaces where a high resin content has been used then problems
of this nature seldom occur.
Surface Clouding
This can be caused by moisture dropping onto the surface before it is cured or humidity. This can be caused by rain
spots and sweat!! Or by accidently flicking excessive white spirit into the surface when cleaning the trowel. Avoid the
rain as previously discussed, wear a headband. It is better not to lay if the humidity is above 80%. Use a Hydrometer
if in doubt.
You cannot remove these stains after the resin has cured so prevention is paramount.
Loose Stone
This can be caused by poorly mixed aggregates where not enough resin has coated the stone. Or by not using
enough resin. In both instances it will cause the stone to not adhere to the mix and will therefore come loose.
Ensure that ALL the mixes are mixed in the same way for the same time.
Resin Bound – Customer after care and maintenance guide
FOR BOUND SURFACING
Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that you’re Resin bound surface is of the highest quality, it will look
better and last longer if a few simple maintenance procedures are adopted.
NORMAL USE:
Resin bound surfaces are intended to be used by normal pedestrian or vehicular traffic for which they have been
designed. Protection should be provided wherever possible against abnormal damage.
ABNORMAL USE:
Heavy objects, such as waste skips, should not be dragged across the surface and protection should be provided
during building and construction work to avoid unsightly contamination from oil, grease, cement and dirt. Spillage of
solvents should be avoided as these will soften and damage the resin binder.
MOSS AND ALGAE GROWTH:
Weed growth should be treated prior to surfacing and it is highly unlikely that any new growth will be sustained.
Periodical application of a proprietary moss and algae killer, such as “algon”, in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions, will remove and prevent any regrowth. Ingrained algal growth can be removed and the colour of the
original surface restored by the application of a strong bleach solution. This should be used in accordance with the
manufacturer’s guidelines and local environmental constraints. After application, the surface should be well rinsed
with clean water.
WEED RESISTANCE:
Due to its construction, the Resin bound surfaces are very resistant to weeds, however, no matter how much care is
taken, weeds may occasionally appear on any surface, including resin based systems, usually as a result of
windblown seeds. Small numbers of weeds can be removed by hand without damaging the surface. If the weeds are
removed by hand, it is important to ensure that the full root of the weed is extracted, not broken off. Some weeds
are more prolific if they are simply cut off at surface level. If the weeds are deep rooted, it is advisable to kill them
off with an appropriate weed killer. Localised areas of weed seeding infestation can be treated with domestic weed
killers without causing damage to the surface.
ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
Keep the surface regularly swept clean with a stiff broom and hose with clean water.
CLEANING:
Chewing gum removal: Removal of individual pieces of chewing gum can be carried out by treating each piece with a
freezing spray and then scraping off the hardened gum with a wall/paint scraper.
WASHING:
Washing can be carried out using a portable pressure washer (up to 150 bar rating) to remove dirt, grime and moss.
Providing care is taken not to damage the surface with excessive pressure. Only cold water should be used and the
water lance must be kept at least 200mm from the surface and a fan type jet used.
CEMENT OR CONCRETE MARKS:
Cement or concrete marks can be removed with careful use of diluted hydrochloric acid or a proprietary cement
remover, immediately followed by a thorough rinsing with clean water. (Please note that if a lime based aggregate is
used, the acid will tend to dissolve this as well).

 
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